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Bathed in ancient cultural history
Orissa, officially spelled Odisha, is a state of India, located on the South east coast of India, by the Bay of Bengal. It is the modern name of the ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE. The modern state of Orissa was established on April 1, 1936, as a province in British India and consisted predominantly of Oriya speakers.April 1 is therefore celebrated as Utkala Dibasa (foundation day of Orissa). Cuttack remained the capital of the state for over eight centuries until April 13, 1948 when Bhubaneswar was officially declared as the new capital of Orissa, and still is the present capital of this state.
Orissa is the 9th largest state by area in India, and the 11th largest by population. Oriya (officially spelled Odia) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by three quarters of the population. Orissa has a relatively unindented coastline (about 480 km long) and lacked good ports, except for the deepwater facility at Paradip, until the recent launch of the Dhamara Port. The narrow, level coastal strip, including the Mahanadi river delta supports the bulk of the population.
Simlipal National Park, Orissa Simlipal Wildlife - Taking its name from the abundance of semul or red silk cotton trees that bloom vividly here, the Simlipal National Park is home to three of India's biggest animal species --Tiger, Asian Elephant and Gaur. Spread over a sprawling area of 2750 sq. kms, the park is at an altitude of 559.31 meters.
Set on a wide expanse of Sal forest, this park is nestled in the very centre of Mayurbhanj, the northernmost district of Orissa. Notable variations in topography, conducive climate and required vegetation has supported large varieties of animals, birds and reptiles to flourish in one of the earliest and finest of India's 15 Tiger reserves falling under Project Tiger.
A forested, hilly terrain 200 km south-west of Kolkata, the reserve is endowed with an exceptional biodiversity. Of the reserve's almost 1,000 species of flowering plants, 94 are orchids, many of which are on show at the small display at
Gurguria. The reserve remains open from mid October to mid June.
An entry permit needs to be taken from the office of Assistant Conservator of Forest, National Park, Jashipur or from the Range Officer, Pithabata at Pithabata. Check Gate to visit the reserve. The tourists can explore the reserve from 0600 to 1200 hours in the day. This time is extended by two hours for the reservation holders and is 0600 to 1400 hours.
With the nearest airports being at 250 and 300 kms at Calcutta and Bhubaneshwar respectively, the reserve is 76 kms away from Lulung and 115 kms from Jashipur. The fauna at the Park including tiger, leopard, elephants, bison, sambar, porcupine, pangolin, flying-squirrel, hill myna, hornbill and pythons can be observed closely by exploring the reserve in private jeeps and cars. But before going on any such expedition, the tourists are advised to take an anti-malarial drug.
Simplipal National Park, a tract of total wilderness is spread over an 845 sq km core area. In the ancient days, this reserve was the hunting preserve of the Mayurbhanj maharajas. As a result of excessive hunting, the wildlife here was seriously damaged. And then it was in the year 1957 that a small area of it was declared a sanctuary. Today, the tiger reserve extends over 2,750 sq. km, within a larger area of 4,374 sq km that constitutes the biosphere reserve. But unfortunately, the tribal communities here still indulge in an annual ritual hunt (akhand shikar) with bows and arrows. To add more to the woes of the animals, encroachment, livestock grazing, poaching and indifferent visitors are also there. But the management of the reserve has managed to sustain a vast variety of wild life here despite nature's resilience. Better funding for effective protection and awareness is therefore required at this stage to sustain healthy numbers of animals.
Nandankanan Zoological Park is a 400-hectare (990-acre) zoo and botanical garden in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India. Established in 1960, it was opened to the public in 1979 and became the first zoo in India to join World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) in 2009.It also contains a botanical garden and part of it has been declared a sanctuary.
Literally meaning 'The Garden of Heavens', is located near the capital city, Bhubaneswar, in the environs of the Chandaka forest, and includes the 134-acre (54 ha) Kanjia Lake. A major upgrade was done during 2000 (after the ruins caused by the super-cyclone of 1999 in coastal Orissa). More than 2 million visitors visit Nandankanan every year.
Ratnagiri (Odia: ରତ୍ନଗିରି) was once the site of a mahavihara, or major Buddhist monastery, in the Brahmani and Birupa river valley in Jajpur district of Orissa, India. It was part of the Puspagiri University, together with Lalitgiri and Udayagiri.
History Ratnagiri was established no later than the reign of the Gupta king Narasimha Baladitya in the first half of the sixth century CE, and flourished until the twelfth century CE.
A Tibetan history, the Pag Sam Jon Zang, identifies Ratnagiri as an important center in the development of the Kalachakratantra in the 10th century CE, an assertion supported by the discovery of a number of votive stupas, plaques, and other artifacts featuring Kalachakra imagery.
A large-scale excavation was conducted at the site between 1958 and 1961, uncovering much of what is known today. The main stupa dates to the 9th century AD and was likely built on the site of an earlier, Gupta-era stupa. Seals were found bearing the legend "Sri Ratnagiri Mahavihariya Aryabikshu Sanghasya," which helped identify it. Prominent, well-persevered standing statues of the bodhisattvas Vajrapani and Padmapani can be found in niches in a portico. Monastery No. 2 features a central paved courtyard flanked by a pillared veranda around which are eighteen cells, a central shrine featuring an image of Shakyamuni in varada mudra flanked by Brahma and Sakra, and elaborately ornamented entrance porticos.
According to Amit Jha, a lecturer in the Department of History at Sri Aurobindo College, Delhi University, "Ratnagiri comprises two magnificent monasteries, also rebuilt more than once. One of them was double-storyed and had an extensive courtyard with two-sides of it having a number of cells for habitation of monks. Besides, we have archaeological remains of six temples, thousands of small stupas, 1386 seals, myriad sculptural relics and architectural pieces of daily use. The largest stupa was 47 feet (14 m) square and 17 feet (5.2 m) high surrounded by four minor stupas. There are hundreds of miniature votive stupas decorated with lotus, petal and beaded tassels." A museum now located on the site displays statuary featuring Tara, Avalokiteshvara, Aparajita, and Hariti have also been found, all in prototypical of Gupta style.
One can proceed 12 km in the Sankarpur road from Dhenkanal Bus stop and then turn west at the Badagila chowk and pass two km to reach Saptya Sajya a scenic beauty where the holy temple of Maryada Purusottama Sri Ramachandra is located at about 900 feet at the hilltop. A mountains stream flows down as if touching his holly feet in veneration. Mythologically this place is important and many legends are still available. Its name is Sapta Sajya because, there are seven hills surrounding the area. Again there is story that, the Saptarashi had their ashramas here in this place.
There is also a mythological story, that, Sriram during his exiled or Vanabasha had spent seven days in this beautiful spot. Secondly the Pandavas during their 12 years of exile and one year of Agyanta Vasa had chosen this mountains for shelter. The Govt. constructed the Pukka road way in 1982. Inside the temple complex Maa Annapurna temple was constructed in 1982, the 1st floor Kalki temple in 1985, the Surya Narayan temple in 1990. Now the temple of Sri Rameswaram Shiva, Sri Ganesh, Sri Mahavir, and the Nabagrah Temple with each room for each graha are found. Mahakali, Mata Saraswati, Sri Nrushingha temple are conceived to be built in the holy complex. This scenic spot has become a good tourist and picnic spot where thousands of tourists and devotees gather from different corners of Odisha and India.
The Khandadhar Falls is located at Nandapani in Sundergarh district in the Indian state of Orissa. It is the 12th highest waterfall in India.
= The Khandadhar Falls is 104 kilometres (65 mi) from Rourkela via Bonaigarh, and 60 kilometres (37 mile) from Kendujhar.
It is a perennial horse tail type waterfall. The Korapani Nala, a small stream, plunges from a height of 244 metres (801 ft) in a single drop.
Kalijai Temple is located on an island in Chilika Lake. It is considered to be the abode of the Goddess Kalijai. Highly revered by the local populace, the deity has been venerated in the local folklores and legends. The island provides an excellent destination for pilgrims as well as tourists. Every year in January, a huge gala fair is held during the festival of Makar Sankranti.
A girl was newly married and was going to her husband in a boat. As her in-law's house was inside an island in Chilika Lake it took a lot of time to reach. Orissa coast is much prone to Cyclones and suddenly such a cyclone came and the boat drowned inside the lake. All the Boatmen with her father were alive except that Girl Jaai undiscovered. After the accidental death of that newly wed girl whose name was Jaai she became goddess of people residing nearby area. And till now she is worshipped as an Amsa of Kali,hence the name of the place.
27 km to the south-west of Puri is the temple of Baliharachandi. Situated on a sandy hill near the sea and adjacent to the mouth of the river Bhargavi, Goddess Durga is worshipped here as Baliharachandi. The scenic beauty of this place is ideal for group picnic
Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves(Odia: ଉଦୟଗିରି ଓ ଖଣ୍ଡ଼ଗିରି ଗୁମ୍ଫା) are partly natural and partly artificial caves of archaeological, historical and religious importance near the city of Bhubaneswar in Orissa, India. The caves are situated on two hills Udayagiri and Khandagiri, mentioned as Kumari Parvat in Hathigumpha inscription and face each other across the road.
They have a number of finely and ornately carved caves. It is believed that most of these caves were carved out huge residential blocks for the Jain monks, during the reign of King Kharavela. Udayagiri meaning Sunrise Hill, has 18 caves while Khandagiri has 15 caves.
The caves of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, called lena or leṇa in the inscriptions, were dug out mostly during the reign of Kharavela for the abode of Jaina ascetics. The most important of this group is Ranigumpha in Udayagiri which is a double storeyed monastery. Unfortunately, a number of the Jaina caves on the Khandagiri side have encroachment problems, with local Brahmins turning them into Hindu shrines and covering up some of the Jaina iconography.
Daringbadi,a Plateu and a beautiful area.The height is 3000ft above sea level. It is an ideal summer resort which is popularly known as Kashmir of Odisha or the heaven of odisha. This place is gifted with natural scenery like pine trees, coffee gardens and beautiful valleys.
It is the only place in Orissa which experiences snow fall during Winter season. Journy to the hills of Daringbadi is an experience in itself. This pretty hill station is hundred kilometres from Phulbani and fifty kilometres from Balliguda.
The resting places are P.W.D. Inspection Bunglow. It is near from the capital of odisha.The tourists will visit this place easity with their own vehicles,bus,train,and also aeroplane.The journey from the plains to the hills of Daringbadi is an experience in itself.
The importance of Paradeep and its beach is manifold. Besides being an attractive tourist spot, the Paradeep beach in Orissa is also one of the most important commercial sea port of the country. Paradeep which is actually an estuary of the Mahanadi River, is one of the most popular beaches of Orissa. Covered by green forests and adorned with natural creeks and island, the Paradeep beach is a paradise for all marine lovers.
Paradip Port is a major seaport in Orissa, which is considered to be one of the largest ports on the eastern coast of India. During 2009 - 2010, this port recorded the handling of over 57 million tonnes of cargo, including thermal coal and iron ore.
It is also the chief sea-borne trade centre in the Bay of Bengal, whose foundation stone was laid in 1962 by the then Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Paradip Port has also been specially mechanised with iron ore berths, cargo berths, container handling facilities and coal handling plants. Close to the port lies the Paradip Beach at the convergence of the Mahanadi River and the Bay of Bengal.
At an altitude of about 3000 ft. above sea level on river Kolab, stands the majestic Kolab Reservoir generating Hydro Electric Power.15 km from Koraput, the river Kolab makes a spectacular jump at Bagra to form a reservoir called the “Upper Kolab Irrigation Project”. An ideal place for an outing, it is also a panacea for city dwellers.
Kolab Botanical Garden stands beside the Majestic Kolab reservoir is ideal for weekend picnic for people all over the district. This place is highly admired for its scenic beauty, attracting tourists for weekend picnic and boating. Kolab Botanical Garden stands beside the Majestic Kolab reservoir is ideal for weekend picnic for people all over the district.
This place is highly admired for its scenic beauty, attracting tourists for weekend picnic and boating. The well maintained botanical garden has over 200 varieties of flowering plants. Even the night view of the reservoir is worth experiencing.
The majestic waterfall, also known as Matsya Tirtha falls from a height of 175 meters. A hydro electric project with its winch developed amidst deep greenery is a place for pleasure.Three KMs away from Duduma waterfall, a small village of Ankadeli draws the attention of foreign tourists to its weekly markets on Thursdays where the most primitive tribe the Bondas, come from the remote, inaccessible dense forest.Jolaput is known for its newly constructed dam reservoir. The lake formed by the dam is 68.2 Sq. Kms. Its a picnic spot, 88 Kms from Koraput.
It is 165 Mts. from Visakhapatnam on the river Machkund are the biggest water falls of Andhra Pradesh. The water is diverted into the Machkund reservoir and the over flow subsequently run throught a caryon. The Dumduma Falls on the River Machhakunda is one of the most popular tourist spot in Orissa. The Dumduma Falls is also known as the Matsya Tirtha and it is the site of the famous Machhakund Hydro-Electric Project. The Dumduma Falls in the Eastern Ghats drops from a height of about 157 meters and is categorized as a horsetail falls.
Investigation and research on the Dumduma Falls began in the year 1941 when the plan for generating hydro-electric power was chalked out. It was around the year 1946, that the scheme was implemented. 104cfs are drawn from the Dumduma hydro electrical plant which hints at the fact that that this waterfall in Orissa is still very active.
Gupteswar is a cave temple located on the banks of Kolab River, about 80 km from Koraput.Important cave shrine of Lord Shiva Situated on a lime stone hill amidst scenic bliss.
The temple houses a sacred swayambhu Shivling called Gupteswar, which literally means the ‘Hidden God. Shivratri is the major festival celebrated here amidst much pomp and splendor.
The fame of the temple is not restricted to Orissa but it is also well known in other parts of the country. The people of Chhattisgarh refer to the shrine by the name Gupta Kedar. Gupteswar can be reached through a forest tract which starts from the east of the Ramagiri Hill up to a distance of 19 km.
Satkosia wildlife sanctuary is one of the most beautiful wildlife sanctuaries in India as well as very important eco-tourism site. The down stream of River Mahanadi after Hirakud Dam flows through a stunning 22KM narrow gorge (1,500 to 2,500 ft high) of Satkosia before falling into the Bay of Bengal.It is located in the districts of Angul, Nayagarh and Boudh. The Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary is extended in an area of 745.52 sq.km. with a rare place of beauty where nature is generously bountiful in all its forms of flora and fauna. Here, the River Mahanadi divides the entire area into two parts which are accessible from two separate districts- Nayagarh and Boudh. On the south of the river is a high range of hills and on the north are the mountainous parts of Athamallik and Angul subdivsions. The scenic beauty of Satkosia with its undulating mountain skyline is mesmerising. The sylvan beauty of the forest with captivating fragrance is simply bewildering.
The meandering Mahanadi flowing closeby amidst bountiful hills, forms here the mightiest gorge of India, twenty-two km long. The nature camp is located on the banks of Mahanadi. The camps have 10 tents with separate toilet facility (Indian style) on the back of the each tent. Each tent has two camp type beds, comfortable enough for a good night sleep. Blankets are provided as it gets real chilly in the winter times. 5 of the tents are called Gharials (alligators) and 5 of the other ones are called Maggars (crocodiles).
It is acclaimed as one of the World's most enchanting spot. The place is ideal for boating, angling and adventure. The forests and hills around the village have varieties of fauna to fascinate the visitors. A Gharial Crocodile Sanctuary, setup here, has enhanced the importance of the place.
Hirakud Dam built on Mahanadi River is the longest dam in India. The overall length of the main dam is 4.8 km, and the total length is 25.8km with dam and dykes taken together. The dam is about 15 km upstream of Sambalpur town in State of Orissa and was the first post independence major multipurpose river valley project in India. The dam irrigates 436000 ha of CCA in Mahanadi delta and has an installed capacity of 307.5 MW. Hirakud Dam is a composite structure of Earth, Concrete and Masonry. Hirakud Dam intercepts 83400 sq. km (32200 sq miles) of Mahanadi catchments. It has a reservoir spread of 743 sq km at full reservoir level and the reservoir has a storage of 5818 M. Cum with gross of 8136 M Cum.
Hirakud Dam is built across the Mahanadi River, about 15 km from Sambalpur in the state of Orissa in India. Built in 1956, the dam is the worlds largest earthen dam. Behind the dam extends a lake, Hirakud Reservoir, 55 km long. Hirakud Dam is one of the longest dams in the world, about 16 mi (26 km) in length. It was the first major multipurpose river valley project started after Indias independence.Construction history
Before the devastating floods of 1937, Sir M. Visveswararya proposed a detailed investigation for storage reservoirs in the Mahanadi basin to tackle the problem of floods in the Mahanadi delta. In 1945, under the chairmanship of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the then Member of Labour, it was decided to invest in the potential benefits of controlling the Mahanadi for multi-purpose use. The Central Waterways, Irrigation and Navigation Commission took up the work.
|01||Total Area (Sq. Kms)||155707|
|02||Total population, 2001||36804660|
|a) Total males||18660570|
|b) Total females||18144090M|
|03||Decadal growth rate, 1991-2001 ( in percentage )||+16.25|
|04||Density of population per Sq. K.M.||236|
|05||Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 males)||972|
|06||Total Urban population, 2001||5517238|
|a) Total males||2911600|
|b) Total females||2605638|
|07||Total Rural population, 2001||31287422|
|a) Total males||15748970|
|b) Total females||15538452|
|08||Total literates and literacy rate (excluding 0-6 population)||19837055
|a) Total male literates and literacy rate||11992333
|b) Total female literates and literacy rate||7844722
|09||Total Scheduled Caste population (2001)||6082063|
|And percentage to total population||16.53|
|10||Total Scheduled Tribes population (2001)||145081|
|And percentage to total population||22.13|
|11||Number of Districts||30|
|12||Number of sub-Divisions||58|
|13||Number of Tahasils||171|
|14||Number of Grama panchayats||6234|
|15||Number of Blocks||314|
|16||Total number of villages, 2001||51349|
|17||Number of Towns (including Census Towns)||138|
|18||Number of Municipal Corporations||2|
|19||Number of Municipalities||35|
|20||Number of Notified Area councils||66|
|21||Number of Industrial Towns||2|
|22||Number of Police Stations (General 453 + Women 6 + Energy 5 + vigilance 6)||470|
|23||Number of Fire Stations||153|
|24||Number of Assembly Constituencies||147|
|25||Number of Lok Sabha Constituencies||21|
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